Volume 16, Issue 62 (2023)                   LCQ 2023, 16(62): 237-283 | Back to browse issues page

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houshangi M, tahmasebi M. Examining the category of anxiety in the collection of stories " Namāzkhane-ye Kuchak-e Man " by Houshang-e Golshiri. LCQ 2023; 16 (62) :237-283
URL: http://lcq.modares.ac.ir/article-29-69365-en.html
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran , m.houshangi@alzahra.ac.ir
2- MA in Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (667 Views)
The centrality of psychoanalytic criticism is the interaction between the field of art, especially literature, with psychoanalytic subjects, in this method, the subject of the text becomes a platform for recognizing the signs, roots and factors of psychosis in the three axes of the author, the text (structure and characters) and the audience; And in rare cases, it will become a method of overcoming crisis and a tool for psychotherapy. In this field, the category of anxiety and obsession is one of the important topics that have been discussed in psychology with different cognitive approaches, and it can be one of the practical topics in the text-oriented analysis of literary works. On the other hand, Golshiri's works have a high capacity for psychoanalytical analysis due to his knowledge of psychology and the conscious application of its techniques and important features in processing and strengthening personality. Therefore, this research has investigated the category of anxiety in the collection of stories " Namazkhaneye Kochake Man " with a descriptive-analytical method and has concluded that the root of anxiety in the characters of these stories is the fear of an accident. Unfortunate is in the future and the characters often turn to the basic response of avoiding the situation and basic defense mechanisms. Most of the characters are suffering from depression, anger and isolation in the face of anxiety, which will represent this crisis in various behavioral signs such as alcohol consumption, insomnia and restlessness, aggression and screaming. In general, anxiety and depression can be considered as the dominant aspect in this collection.
Extended abstract
Psychoanalytic criticism is the interaction between the field of art and literature, with psychoanalytic subjects. In this method, the subject of the text becomes a platform for recognizing the signs, roots and factors of psychosis in the three axes of the author, the text (structure and characters) and the audience; And in rare cases, it will become a method of overcoming crisis and a tool for psychotherapy. In this field, the category of anxiety and obsession is one of the important topics that have been discussed in psychology with different cognitive approaches, and it can be one of the practical topics in the text-oriented analysis of literary works. On one hand, Golshiri's works have a high capacity for psychoanalytical analysis due to his knowledge of psychology and the conscious application of its techniques and important features in processing and strengthening personality. Therefore, this research has investigated the category of anxiety in the collection of stories "Namazkhaneye Koochake Man" with a descriptive-analytical method and has concluded that the root of anxiety in the characters of these stories is the fear of an accident. On the other hand, psychologists associate anxiety with a general feeling of restlessness and worry and believe that anxiety is the thought or imagination of threats that we may face in the future. So, anxiety is an unpleasant emotion that we usually describe with words such as worry, tension and fear. Freud believes that the first experience of anxiety that every person faces in life is birth,  (Freud, 2021: 166) because birth is the moment of separation of the child from the mother. But later he changed his opinion to the fact that anxiety is the result of the conflict between unconscious sexual desires or aggression and mutual threats from external commands or reality.
Psychologists also distinguish between fear and anxiety. The difference between fear and anxiety is that in fear, the cause of danger is external, but in anxiety, the person's own internal conditions are the cause of danger, and both are mental reactions to danger. So our immediate reaction in the situation of danger is known as fear, but anxiety does not occur only at the moment of danger. In presenting different types of anxiety one should consider Freud's theory. He mentions three types of anxiety: 1. Real anxiety, which is a kind of normal fear and its cause is threats caused by dangers in the real world. 2. Neurotic anxiety, which is a threat from the institution and is much more difficult to cope with, because the institution is completely unconscious. 3. Moral anxiety that comes from command threats. As a result of this analysis, according to the presented theoretical foundations and examining the relationships between internal and external factors with anxiety, it will lead to general results. In the first story of this collection, "Namāzkhane-ye Koochak-e Man", the presence of social and pervasive anxiety in the narrator's personality is prominent. The two main factors of the formation of these anxieties in him are heredity and living environment. The presence of anxiety in the narrator has caused him to find a recluse character and turn more to the irrational response of avoidance; which led to the continuation of his anxiety and rumination and focus on himself has drowned him more than before. By convincing himself and using the defense mechanism of argumentation, the narrator has considered the subject of his anxiety as a part of his being, and the same subject is pervasive anxiety disorder and constant worry about losing the appendage. The disorder has a negative effect on his interpersonal and emotional relationships and disrupts his life to a great extent.
In the story "Aksi Baraye Qāb-e Akse Khali-ye Man", anxiety has become the basis for changing the behavior of prisoners and, in general, the feeling of anger was caused by anxiety. In the story " Har do Ruye Sekkeh", the old man's perfectionism and loneliness will become the main cause of anxiety and, as a result, anger and aggression and finally depression was apparent. Akhtar's anxiety in the story "Gorg" is manifested in the form of phobia of animals, that is, wolves, which causes him to become isolated. The presence of two features of focusing on the anxiety-causing issue and irrational response to anxiety are more prominent in this story. In the story "Arusak-e Chini-ye Man", Maryam reconstructs herself in the form of a game and by using the defense mechanism of displacement, and she releases her negative experiences and emotions with the help of her doll. In this story, the two components of anger and depression caused by anxiety are more pronounced. In the story "Masum-e Avval", the fear of the presence of the scarecrow and environmental conditions are the main causes of anxiety in the city's residents and anxiety at the end of the story becomes a part of the narrator. In the story "Masum  Dovvom", the cause of anxiety in Mustafa is guilt, and environmental factors cause anxiety in four of the characters. The defense mechanism of projection plays an important role in relieving anxiety in this narrative. In the story of " Masum-e Sevvom", the presence of personality disorders in the teacher, his passing from reality, and the use of the defensive mechanism of identification are the main factors and results of anxiety. The character of the narrator in the story "Masum-e Chaharom" is anxiety resulting from an external matter and fear of the proximity of opponents. Depression, as a common consequence of anxiety disorders, is seen in some way in all anxious personalities and even leads to suicide. Other frequent consequences of anxiety in personalities are sleep disturbance, self-blame, thinking and focusing on a stressful issue, and feeling angry and aggressive. The anxiety of people has a growing trend; To the extent that it often leads to the death of people. It can be concluded that from the author's point of view, anxiety causes a lot of personal helplessness and is paralyzing. Apart from the story of “Masum-e Sevvom”, where anxiety is caused by the presence of psychosis and personality disorder in the main character, in other stories, environmental factors play more effective roles in the appearance of anxiety in people.
 
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Contemporary Contemporary Criticism
Received: 2023/05/23 | Accepted: 2023/10/2 | Published: 2023/10/2

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