Volume 14, Issue 54 (2021)                   LCQ 2021, 14(54): 145-188 | Back to browse issues page

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moeini S, razi A, cheraghi R. The Necessity of Environmental Criticism in Iran: Analytical Study. LCQ 2021; 14 (54) :145-188
URL: http://lcq.modares.ac.ir/article-29-44286-en.html
1- university of Guilan , soolmazmoeini@yahoo.com
2- university of guilan
3- University of Guilan
Abstract:   (3219 Views)
The environmental criticism that emerged in response to the environmental crisis, traces the origins of many environmental problems in its cultural roots and by bridging the gap between science and culture, seeks to halt or slow down the growing trend of the environmental crisis. This criticism has attracted the attention of Iranian researchers in the last decade, but it seems that this type of research in Iran is still far from international standards. Due to its connection with political and economic issues and many other complexities, this criticism has its own special capacities, but since less attention is paid to its contexts and fundamental issues in Iran, it has become more decorative and its various principles and dimensions have not been considered. In order to bring the principles of this criticism closer to its global meanings in Iran, this study tries to investigate and survey the problems and shortcomings of this criticism with its strengths and weaknesses by reviewing the perspectives of prominent global theorists and evaluating a number of articles published in Iran on ecological criticism. The result of the study reveals that the lack of proper understanding of the concept of ecocriticism and the environment, ignoring the value and inherent position of the non-human world regardless of the humanistic view, ignoring the interdisciplinary aspects of ecological criticism, the lack of pragmatic and practical dimension of criticisms and the wrong choice of works for this criticism are some of the problems that environmental criticism faces in Iran.
Research Background
Environmental criticism was introduced to the Iranian scientific community in 2008 with a study by Davood Emarati Moghaddam in introducing the book “Ecocriticism” by Greg Gerrard. Later on, some studies entitled “An Introduction to Ecocriticism” and “The Theory of Literary Ecocriticism – An Introduction to New Research Schools in Studying and Analyzing the Form and Content of Literary Works” by Masih Zekavat (2011), “An Interdisciplinary Movement between Environment and Literature” by Mohammad Naser Maududi (2011), “Ecocriticism, a New Approach in Literary Criticism” (2012) and the books “Ecocriticism” (2013), “About Eco-Criticism” (2013) and “Green Literature” (2015) by Zahra Parsapour introduced Ecocriticism and some of its dimensions and contexts.
Objectives, Questions, Assumptions
The history of the presence of nature in Persian and world literature is as old as literature itself and their nexus is inseparable. As a result, many researchers have analyzed this relationship based on the poet and the writer's interest in nature and their impression from the environment, but the problem is that most of these studies have been published under the title “Environmental Criticism”. Now the question is if expressing the interest and respect of a poet or writer towards nature can be considered as an environmental criticism, or whether this is a new problem that has not been addressed before. What kind of approach and perspective towards these works can place them within the sphere of environmental criticism? What is new about this criticism, and what sets it apart from the old approaches towards nature? Are the ecological studies or environmental criticism that is known in Iran correctly interpreted? What are the problems and shortcomings of addressing this criticism in research in Iran and what are the missing subjects in this field? 
This study critically examines fifteen articles published under the title of “Ecological Criticism in Iran”, and deals with the problems and shortcomings of such studies in Iran and tries to introduce this type of criticism correctly and offers suggestions for improving the situation of ecological criticism.
The basis of the problems of environmental criticism in Iran is related to the problems of translation and also a group of intellectuals’ presumptions, thinking environmental criticism is not yet a serious issue. First of all, it is required to provide a definition of environmental criticism. In addition, the necessities of environmental criticism should be taken into consideration as well.
If this criticism is a study of the relationship between human and inhuman world in literature, it is necessary to know the essence and the meaning of the inhuman world and the extent of its boundaries in ecocriticism. Ignoring it in many local and foreign studies has made it fundamentally difficult to properly understand this type of criticism. The interdisciplinary aspects of environmental criticism, the intrinsic value of nature, choosing the right work and author for an analysis and being pragmatic and practical are some of the principals that should be considered in environmental criticism.
Studying these fifteen articles published in the field of ecocriticism in Iran reveals that many of these articles have difficulty not only in providing a correct definition and an accurate knowledge of the work, but also in complying with the requirements of environmental criticism. Accepting the environment and nature as an independent entity beyond the humanistic view was not observed in the studies, and although the practical and pragmatic ideals are the two basic features of ecological criticism and a guarantee for saving the environment, they have not been reflected in Iranian environmental studies as they should have been. Translating basic texts and resources in the field of environmental criticism and combining it with indigenous cultural features in the country is essential to recognize the extensive dimension of this framework. It can also pave the way not only for solving the current problems, but also for enhancing the effectiveness of studies in protecting the environment and creating a culture to prevent its destruction.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Literary theory
Received: 2020/07/9 | Accepted: 2021/07/1 | Published: 2021/07/1

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