Volume 16, Issue 63 (2023)                   LCQ 2023, 16(63): 67-105 | Back to browse issues page

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Rayat-e Hasanabadi A. Review of Visual Boutiques of Espacementalism in Indian Style: The Case of Bidel Dehlavi's Poems. LCQ 2023; 16 (63) :67-105
URL: http://lcq.modares.ac.ir/article-29-70541-en.html
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Abstract:   (2541 Views)
One of the main propositions in understanding Espacementalism is that this literary trend does not claim to be new in its visual boutiques. In the Espacementalism manifesto, the existence of similar cases in classical Persian poetry is clearly acknowledged and pointed out. Royai, as the leader of Espacementalism has repeatedly mentioned in his notes that Espacementalism is not a new experience, but the result of focusing on a specific form of imaging and looking. On the other hand, the subjectivity of Espacementalism poetry when creating Espacemental images has a significant similarity with the model of abstract imagery of Indian style poets, especially Bidel Dehlavi. In this article, after defining and explaining the term Espacemental image, examples of this form of imagery have been analyzed, then by analyzing examples of this model of imagery in Bidel's poetry, it has been shown that Espacemental imagery is one of the common stylistic features of Royai's poetry.

Extended Abstract
1. Introduction
Espacementalism is one of the important currents of Persian poetry that recognized with the publication of the Espacementalism manifesto. The poets of this movement have performed a new type of poetry based on non-normative language and the construction of nested and multidimensional forms, which are fundamentally different from other contemporary poetry movements. The most important poet of this movement is Yadollah Royai, and although this movement has continued in the poetry of the second and third generation poets, this movement is still known as Royai, and other poets have presented criteria different from what is intended by Royai in their poetry.
In this essay, the term Espacemental image is used for the first time.  It is a special way of looking at phenomena that has been repeated many times in Royai's poems and he has insisted on it. This feature does not contain all the ideas of the Espacementalism and is only one of the many features of this poetic style. Specialists in contemporary Persian poetry know that Espacementalism never claims imagenal innovation in modern Persian poetry.  In the Espacementalism manifesto, three-dimensional jumps are emphasized, and this history and poetic experience is clearly mentioned that these three-dimensional jumps are also seen in classical Persian literature. So in this research, the main issue is to show examples of this Espacemental image in Bidel Dehlavi's poetry (as one of the most prominent poets of the Indian style).

2. Methodology
After defining and explaining the term Espacemental image, examples of this form of imagery have been analyzed. Detailed descriptive statistics of the Espacemental image status in important Royai’s books are presented in the form of a frequency table and a bargraph. Then, by analyzing examples of this model of imagery in Bidel's poetry, it has been shown that Espacemental imagery is one of the common stylistic features of Yadollah Royai and Bidel Dehlavi poetry.

3. Discussion and conclusion
Espacementalism is closely related to Persian classical poetry, and although it is in the continuation of the logical course of contemporary avant-garde and modernism in terms of time, on the other hand, it has maintained its relationship with classical poetry in imagery. The importance of this issue is that, contrary to the common idea that voluminous poetry is called a language game, rootless and disconnected poetry, etc., this current is based on the solid visual foundations of classical poetry and Yadollah Royai's effort in proposing Espacementalism and this poetic model can be seen as an act of updating some creative stylistic features of classical poets.
In Bidel Dehlavi's poem, a Espacemental image is used in topics such as unity and multiplicity, unity of being, exterior and interior, inside and outside, mirror and image, water and image, mask and beauty, container and container, etc. Concepts in which two present elements and one absent element are objective and non-abstract but in the Royai’s poems, the Espacemental image pattern is presented in addition to objective and understandable concepts, in abstract concepts such as death, sleep, silence, and in dimensions beyond three dimensions. In fact, Royai has been able to perform two poetic actions in his works. First, this model has turned imagery into a rule and style in his poetry in such a way that there is always an expectation of Espacemental imagery in the Espacementalism. Second, he has been able to improve this feature that was presented in Persian classical poetry in the limit of three dimensions and create a Espacemental image in more dimensions than three dimensions, and consciously improve the visual system of classical poetry in this regard.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Stylistics
Received: 2023/07/16 | Accepted: 2024/01/17 | Published: 2024/01/30

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