Volume 14, Issue 54 (2021)                   LCQ 2021, 14(54): 37-66 | Back to browse issues page

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Ghasemi F, Baniardalan E. Persian Language in Khayr al-Nisa: Narrative Analysis. LCQ. 2021; 14 (54) :37-66
URL: http://lcq.modares.ac.ir/article-29-43762-en.html
1- PhD Student in Farabi International campus, Art University, Tehran.
2- associate professor,member of the scientific group of Art Studies. Art University. Tehran, Iran. , Bani.ardalan@art.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1467 Views)
  • Abstract
    The formation of Khayr al-Nisa’s narrative language is based on a unique feature of Persian language called narrative essence. It creates the logic of events in this linguistic context through its combinational property and combinability as well as the interactions of components. Therefore, based on the aforementioned information and concerning the question of how the language of Khayr al-Nisa is formed regarding its narrative logic, this study seeks not only to realize the interactions of the components forming the narrative language, but also its importance and position in the contemporary literature and culture. In this journey, with respect to the heuristic essence of the story, the components constituting its language have been considered as the theoretical framework and then their mechanism in the formation of narrative language has been studied. This research which is qualitative and is conducted through a descriptive-analytical method addresses the fourfold aspects of combinational property, temporality, locality and character in the story’s language and examines some parts of each. The result suggests that paying attention to the principle of combinability in Persian language and its power to materializing and making the story tangible are the main reasons for the existence of a narrative language in Khayr al-Nisa, which made the narration believable and facilitated the process of logical reasoning. In addition, the realization of the story in this context requires establishing logical relations between successive events through the components of time, place and the character of Khayr al-Nisa in a harmonious and coherent way, which has been done in the story of Khayr al-Nisa with regard to the nature of heuristics and the tradition of Iranian fiction. Besides, the language of the narrative reveals the Iranian culture and shows the written contemporary narrative being rooted in its tradition and therefore causes an intuitive unity among its inhabitants.

    Extended Abstract
    Introduction
    Ghasem Hasheminezhad is a well-known writer, critic and translator who has a record of research in mystical texts. Khayr al-Nisa is a long documented mystical story which was published in 1993 for the first time and is rooted in its long-time literary context. The language of narration in Khayr al-Nisa is based on the combinational property of Persian language and the logic of mystical texts in Persian literature which constitute the theoretical framework of this study. Therefore, this research is written based on the question that how the language of Khayr al-Nisa is formed regarding its narrative logic to not only realize the interactions of the components forming the narrative language, but also its importance and position in the contemporary literature and culture.
    Theoretical Framework
    The narrative logic in Khayr al-Nisa is rooted in a unique feature of Persian language called narrative essence. In this context, the components of time, place and character through their harmonic function and based on the history of fiction writing in Iran, create the narrative language through defining a cause and effect relationship. The time of current life and the spoken language of the period are the primary bases of the creation of narrative language. Furthermore, time should be studied chronologically with regard to the rule of presentiment in the tradition of fiction writing in Iran. Moreover, duration and frequency in Genette’s theory about the narrative time are other important components in creating language which are studied in this research by considering the mystical essence of Khayr al-Nisa. In addition to temporality, locality can also disclose the importance of creating situations which can visualize the space of story and make the relation in it more logical and believable. Finally, it is the character of Khayr al-Nisa, which is the basic aspect of forming a narrative language based on the role of famous characters in Persian literature.
     Conclusion
    1. Applying the combinational property and combinability of Persian language in Khayr al-Nisa leads to a believable story which has a heuristic essence because of objectifying and materializing the mystical events through the combinational verbs and words of the spoken language. Therefore this is the basic context which facilitate the interrelations of the components in narrative logic of Khayr al-Nisa.
    2. The component of temporality consistently coordinates with the combinational property in the narrative language. The language reveals a period of time in the past and not only tells the individual story of Khayr al-Nisa as well as the ineffable events in her life that constitutes the basis of the narration, it has also addressed its socio-cultural and historical context. Accordingly, the narration has a kind of certainty for the readers that they can follow the logic of events without hesitation which improves the acceptance of the cause and effect of each event. Furthermore, the order of events based on the principle of presentiment and not creating a sense of ignorance and surprise in the readers in the tradition of fiction writing in Iran, is conducted in such a way that each of them is the effect of the initial event and at the same time has a causal relationship with the other on the basis of an invisible affair. On the other hand, because of heuristic essence of the story, duration and frequency are considered in a way that the mysterious and sacred aspects of the story are not reduced through the expression.
    3. Locality in narration is a part of the logical structure because it objectifies the situations in such a way that can complete the causes and effects. In Khayr al-Nisa, from the beginning, through language embodiment which shows accessibility and entrance, the variety of spaces, the quality of boundaries and openings and the symbolic things, Khayr al-Nisa’s identity and situation are explained. By elucidating more details such as measure of space, materials and the form of plan, Khayr al-Nisa’s financial ability, mood and desires, aesthetic emotion and worldview alongside cultural issues like limits and territories in her dwelling place are shown.
    4. Khayr al-Nisa is not just a character in a plot; rather, she is a real person who is the grandmother of the narrator/writer, well-known, respected and dear in her life. In the first aspect, the narrative language has such an intimate and honest quality that facilitates the making cause-effect relationship of events logical and more believable. In the second aspect, characterizing famous personalities in narration increases validity and acceptance of the story which is a common basis in Persian literature. Therefore, with regard to this component, the character of Khayr al-Nisa is the primary aspect of forming its narrative language.
    5. All the components have harmoniously created a narration with concrete language that represents some aspects of the Iranian’s life and culture during a period of time. Therefore, Khayr al-Nisa has a significant role in contemporary literature as it causes an intuitive unity among Persian speakers.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Narrative Science
Received: 2020/06/17 | Accepted: 2021/07/1 | Published: 2021/07/1

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